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Modern History of ELECTRICITY, 'etc.'
(by Ron Bert)

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We assume the intellectual understanding and practical use of electricity or power is a recent event in the epoch (assumed 20,000 ~ 6,000 years?) of human existence.   As humans, we struggle to obtain or maintain a semblance of the truth.   When does a truth become normal, understood, commonly accepted; considered conventional?   Modern history shows it can take more than decades and countless people working alone or together to achieve a better clarity for society, and thus, the self, and how much of the past is remembered, I surely do not know, who among us could say?   Countless splendored and tragic things have been forgotten to the untold epochs of the past.   Misunderstanding has been common.   What of the present NOW in truth is commonly known?   What is definite; how do we base reality?   Religion; science; social agendas; time's course has delivered both moments of unity and conflict in the midst of our human plights.   And for my electrical thoughts universally conceived for everyone’s benefit, is my work and views vicariously reviewed, hot or cold, praised or scorned, neglected or accepted?   I wage weariness in human abandonment; most do.   I ask, is tolerating evil overwhelming the good, unity, in us?   Have we merely been reduced to nervous forgetfulness, fear of neighbor (family), spitefulness without committed resolve in the honor of wise open love?   We loose our focus when our ability to care vanishes.   Does weakness overcome strength; greed over despair; maturity overwhelmed by immaturity, self wholeness over holiness, taking over giving?   Do we lack those things history tries to remind us of repeatedly?   Wisdom or ignorance, we live to become more or less; the penetrating thorns of what is giving and or taking.   Mortal life is a temporary series of electrical pulses, of this there is no argument.   Hospital equipment records the beat of a heart but what of life and how we live with one another?   Will we NOW stumble extinguishing any capable resolve our current potential technical power could produce so as to become more for the betterment of not just our children’s ability to continue loving and living freely, but to build upon their deepest dreams.   When has there been a time not despicable?   It is found in any moment of individual compassion for all.   - The next fundamental revolution in science NOW commences before us all rising from the past.   However painful, let us NOW forevermore bathe in the fire of truth.

Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), a German physicist, invented the first mercury in a glass thermometer and introduced the thermometric scale known by his name.   What is hot?   What is cold?   What is the difference?   Definition of scope is the essence of all comparison.

Anders Celsius (1701-1744), a Swedish astronomer, invented the centigrade thermometer by using the freezing point of water as zero and the boiling point as 100.

Most Americans have heard the story of Benjamin Franklin's (1706-1790) dangerous kite experiment with lightning in 1752.   Franklin was the first person to announce that electricity had both positive and negative charge.

In 1753 the first suggestion for an electrical telegraph was made in Scotland by an anonymous writer.

James Watt (1736-1819), a Scottish engineer, invented the modern condensing steam engine.   He filed a patent in 1769, just 200 years before man landed on the Moon.

Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), an English chemist, not only was a pioneer in the study of gases, but was a master of measurements and weights.   His work on electricity anticipated the future works of Coulomb, Ohm, Faraday, and others; us.   As with any renaissance (common sense awakenings), the definition of reality is the goal.   We are still in a rising renaissance of electrical proficiency.

Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806), a French engineer and mechanics researcher, then described the technicalities of charged bodies during the 1790s.

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745-1827), an Italian physicist, invented the battery in 1800. Fundamentals.

Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856), an Italian physicist, invented a hypothesis which made an important distinction between atoms and molecules.   Essentially it states that in one mole or gram-molecular weight of a substance, (6.02486 ± 0.00016) x 1023 molecules are present.   This number is known as Avogadro's constant and applies to perfect gases.   The stuff things are made of, quantities.   History has always struggled to identify, or more importantly, label things of substance long before Pythagoras (582-500 BC) said, “All things are numbers.”   Undeniably for us and to the anguish of many, the face of the smallest and largest numbers shall forever remain obscure.   Below and above, all things maintain the eternal mystery of creation.   We attempt to explain that which we can perceive.   Unarguably, we must accept our unperceivable universe which can never be seen NOW for humanity to rise to the greatness that is the truth.   Common knowledge is social wisdom.

Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), a Danish scientist, and Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836), a French physicist, both showed, in 1820, how an electric current produces a magnetic field.   There is worth in attraction, and repulsion, pull and push; interesting.

Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854), a German mathematician and physicist, developed fundamentals to explain the relationships between voltage, current flow, and resistance in a closed circuit in 1826.   Wow!   This enormously helped others to become an awesome part of our present knowledge.

Joseph Henry (1797-1878) an American physicist, was the first to insulate wire for the magnetic coil, and he invented the spool winding discovering the induction, "transformer," effect in 1830, as did Michael Faraday (1791-1867) in 1831.   Faraday was a master experimentalist whose work with materials and his creation of the concept of "lines of force" laid the groundwork for the electric generator, direct current (DC).   Electricity has the force of extent.

James Prescott Joule (1818-1889), an English physicist and inventor, researched and described relationships between energy's electrical, chemical, and mechanical effects and how different forms of energy could be converted from one to another.

We see how some of these names correlate to units we associate with electricity today, i.e., charge defined in coulombs and measured in volts, current in amperes, resistance in ohms, power in watts, magnetic field strength in oersteds, inductance in henrys, capacitance in farads, and energy in joules.   The explanation of basics is required before any practical applications can occur.   The more basics or fundamentals commonly known, the more options for technological innovations.   As with any technology, the scientific fundamentals must be defined for that technology to form.   Scientific unity or awareness is the precursor to revolutionary innovations.

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872), an American artist and inventor, invented the most widely used telegraph in 1837 after it was first suggested in 1753.   It takes Time to implement new ideas, or to make practical applications.

William John Macquorn (1820-1872), a Scottish engineer and physicist, worked to establish the science of thermodynamics.   Many people since Galileo (1564-1642) have been interested in the study of energy and heat.   The nature of heat and its' effects are still studied to this day.   It is the limit or boundaries of this science that have yet to be exactly defined.

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-1899), a German chemist, pioneered the field of spectrum analysis.   If you've studied chemistry you've heard of the Bunsen Burner that he invented in 1855.

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Von Helmholz (1821-1894), a German philosopher and man of science, also established the conservation of force, the 1st law of thermodynamics.   Energy and matter are conserved, or at least the unperceivable difference upon conversion.   He discussed the phenomena of color vision and the phenomena of electrical oscillations.   He was interested in the propagation of electromagnetic induction.   What pulse in life do you follow and what is it equivalent to?

William Thomson Kelvin, Baron (1824-1907), an English physicist, established the principle of the dissipation of energy, the 2nd law of thermodynamics.   The Universe is cooling off; Entropy increases.   Hot flows to cold.   He proposed his absolute scale of temperature based on his dynamical theory of heat.   He lectured on the wave theory of light.

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), a Scottish physicist, continued to show how magnetism and electricity influenced one another and eventually described electromagnetic radiation mathematically in 1873.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887), a German Physicist, established spectroscopy on a sound theoretical basis and gave the explanation of the Fraunhofer lines.   Originally in 1814, 500 dark lines were catalogued by Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), a German physicist.   Fraunhofer lines are the dark lines visible in the spectrum representing light emitted by various elements as they vaporize.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894), a German physicist, was the first to demonstrate the production and reception of electromagnetic (radio) waves.   He was student of Helmholz.   The unit of frequency is called Hertz in his honor.   One hertz is equal to one cycle per second.

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), a Scotish-American speech teacher, invented the telephone in 1876.

William Crookes (1832-1919), an English chemist and physicist, invented the Cathode ray tube in 1879.  That was just over 125 years ago.   In ancient days, one lifetime ago.

Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931), an American innovator exceptionar, invented the light bulb in 1879.

The first public direct current (DC) power plants started operating in the 1880s.

William Konrad Roentgen, (1845-1923), a German physicist, discovered X-rays in 1895.   One Roentgen is equal to the amount of radiation producing one electrostatic unit of positive or negative charge per cubic centimeter in dry air at 0o C and in one atmosphere.   It involves the density and frequency of electron occurrence and is how we measure the lethalness of element radiations.

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), an Italian physicist, was the inventor of a practical system of radiotelegraphy in 1896.   Also known as wireless telegraphy.   Radio Waves; vibrations all around us!

Jean B Perrin (1870-1942), a French physicist, discovered that cathode rays consisted of negatively charged particles.   These particles were named electrons.

By 1898, through Nikola Tesla's (1856-1943), a Serbian-American inventor, 1888 invention of the alternating current (AC) induction motor and George Westinghouse's (1846-1914), an American inventor, use of transformers, AC became the predominant means of public power transmission.

Human, thy name is discovery!

Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941), a German Chemist, and in 1906, he announced his heat theorem, or third law of thermodynamics.   This showed the maximum work obtainable from a process could be calculated from the heat evolved at temperatures near absolute zero.   Lowest temperature is at -273.16o Celsius, 0 degrees Kelvin.   Atomic agitation stops or observable vibration halts; supposedly frictionless.   Time has no absolute motion?

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947), a German physicist, introduced quantum theory and was a master of thermodynamics.   Plank's constant was named in his honor, it is the elementary quantum of action; the ratio of the energy of a photon to its frequency, it is equal to 6.62620 ± 0.00005 x 10-34 joule-seconds; pockets of light vibration.

Vladamir Kosma Zworykin (1889-1982), a Russian-American electronic engineer and inventor, is known as the Father of television.   He developed the first television picture tube, called the kinescope, in 1920.

John L Baird (1888-1946), an English inventor, developed the color television in 1939.   Vacuum tubes were coming of age, very expensive, cutting edge.

Neils Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962), a Danish physicist, was the first to apply quantum theory to atomic structure. It is known as Quantum Mechanics where atoms and the electron orbitals have discrete energies.

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), an Italian-American physicist, directed the work leading to the first controlled nuclear chain reaction in 1942, the first nuclear reactor.   Henceforth, the nuclear genie rises unleashing one of nature’s true puzzle pieces regarding energy.   What has come through development is now what we observe.   Is NOW knowledge our salvation or downfall?; it is found in the nature of our collective love over hate.   Are we curious or desperate?   Do we live in a world of diminishing trust or enthusiastic excitement in life?   Can we rise from our troubles?   Peace is our ultimate struggle.   Forward is our path to success.

In 1946, J. Presper Eckert (1919-1995), an American engineer, and John Mauchly (1907-1980), an American physicist, unveiled ENIAC, which used over 17,468 vacuum tubes.   This was the first large scale electronic digital computer.

We are now forever in an age where one person can no longer complete the great tasks that confront us.   We NOW have no option but to JOIN TOGETHER for the greater worth of all.   What is the compellation of our wisdom?   The universe has no need to compete for the electrical truth it upholds.   It is that it is.   Humans though have been debating over the truth since the beginning of creation.   Faith in the unperceivable is not yet firmly established scientifically and it would be universally progressive if clearly produced for all to see.

In 1947, Walter Houser Brattain (1902-1987), William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989), and John Bardeen (1908-1991) invented the first transistor at Bell Laboratories.   True fundamental science or understanding delivers useful technology.

The laser was first established in 1958, also in this year, the integrated circuit, which incorporated many transistors and other components on a small chip of semiconductor material was realized.   Circuit boards and the understanding of electricity is multifaceted and involves perceptions of the essence of all that is.  I was born in 1958 and call it henceforth the age of the beam babies, children in the light.   Will we see through the darkness?

In 1960, the first working laser became reality.   We are now in the epitome of incredible applications, as long as the environment allows and the benevolence of humanity endures under the grace of God.

Seymour Cray (1925-1996), an American electronics engineer, invented the Cray-1 in 1976, our bicentennial.   It was the fastest and most powerful computer of the time.   ... One hundred years after Bell invented the telephone.

Three mass-market personal computers emerged in 1977: the Apple II, Radio Shack's TRS-80, and the Commodore PET.   I graduated high school in 1977 after flunking the second grade and have obtained no professional career, yet I envision a revolutionary unreserved memory core and multifaceted power amplifiers.   Many have and will claim that I have missed the mark but I proclaim peace in the grace of thought.   Freedom belongs to those with eternal goals of love and who realize treasures above this world; who would know I love you forever; truth.   It is a matter of commitment and it adds value to this world regardless of anyones personal successes or failures.   For all, the day is made new to discover why and what from where.   Life is a series of additions always gaining more.   An infinitude, googolfold, displays before us all.   Where would Life be without the challenge of why from what?   It is what makes us uniquely alive.   Electrically, I have obtained more than any social label, degree, or transparent career; uniquely and most thankfully, eternal life provides a higher charge for me.   How can one label immortal?   Value is found in patience and truly all those honestly curious treasure this in view of higher truths.   Genius is matched in its' waiting.   That which comes forth from challenge causes the smiles in us, one result of patience.   The past shows mortal haughtiness withstanding against truth's simple rising.   Electrical Peace is only found in that which allows the One Love of Creation an instant whole touch, for the goodness of it.   Calm truth holds all.   Only humbly may we find real strength without fear.   As an electrical tool, computers assist us all enabling a greater civilized glory.

The IBM PC came out in 1981, just a few decades ago folks!   It is not so much advancement for its’ own sake, as in times past anymore, but profit considerations steer global markets, curtailing the best we can be.   Hidden high end discoveries; secretive truths stagnate advancing free thought in truth and cynically perpetuate worldwide anarchy among the simple; trust evaporates.   The only way we can protect ourselves with power is to expose and protect what we know.   We must rally around the truth that is found in us.   In our current insecure confusion and at this offensive and perilous crossroads for our good earth, what noble national goal would be of a better benefit for our country - and in fact all humanity? ~ An electron radiating Crystal Photon Reactor.   What is the pinnacle of knowledge?   What will become of us?   Fantasy and reality are folds in the same garment.   Many choices NOW lay before us.   Will we stand to unite with so many continuing goals amongst us?   How do we define our Scientific Base, as a gift of life or just simple light unveilings.   Empty to Total; Questions of Space, Time, Energy, Love, Death, Soul(s), Light. Who could be lonely but all.   How could one ever define Measurements and Definitions from here to the edge of distant stars? Our imaginations can.

Instead of pursuing powerful computers, we have chosen the affordable PC which has curtailed the production of expensive high end useful equipment.   How many know that many prototypes are the inventions of prototypes themselves?   When will we yet harness lightning or the subtle radiations from those reflections of that universal mirror in time's motion [a Crystal Photon Reactor (CPR): look between two mirrors], - and not just flat solar impingement collectors (- they turn "electrically" off)?   Having electrical permanence is imperatively important in securing our opportunities for enduring happiness.   Unfortunately, we have reduced our culture to the cheap in more ways than one when we can't even talk to our wives or fellow workers about what we do.   We hide and one result is lost.   Our world has always desperately hungered for life without fear.   What do we teach our children, search, discover, share?   High technology has come to a point of secrets and paranoia; one of our national mottos has become, "Trust No One."   Most, if not all, are disgusted in the bickering quagmire we call humanity.   We lack the unity that inspires all people to contribute for the greater glory of all under mercy without pride.   Social pressures drive unempathetic self seeking souls to our current oblivion.   How many would claim maturity in wisdom is ours?   So, where do we go from here?   We are rich with depression.   Will we wither as adults or blossum as children of light?   How has the last 300 years taught us?   What does the ages of man teach or show us?   Certainly books have been opened.   What do we remember?   What should we remember?   How do we advance?   Can we choose truth over falsehoods?

In the past, truth’s strength lies open, so why should we now hide as adults keeping the sweet ideals of our innocent youth from making us happy?   Exposed universal electrical truths will empower us all.   For technology to advance, imaginary facades of fear must be torn away if true advancement will be ours.   Fear, corruption, lost simplicity, forgetful hypocrites with hardened hearts; we do not follow our own wisdom but fall in the pit of ignorance incorporating transforming dogmas as shifting temporary social fads.   We are a whimsical lot.   There is a lack of fear and respect for authority as anger devours us.   Terror mobs our highways.   In the waters of time that can not be grasped, all cry in hope.   Will or can this war of loveless isolation stop and the pockets of squabbling disagreements cease?   Where is our Thomas Paine (1737-1809)?   The whistle NOW blows.   Instead of pursuing decaying matter as our source electrical supplier (radioactive nuclear piles), we should establish its’ simple extraction through the natural rejuvenation of our fundamental universe.   Do we choose death or life in pursuit of our planets electrical future?

Clearly we see how the public use of electricity's DC and AC power has been with us for just over one century, after about 150 years of experimentation.   Most people are unconcerned with these previously described events and opinions but tend to panic when their lights, stereo, and or television, car, etc., unexpectedly stop.   We take the "modern convenience(s) of electricity" for granted and should not expect its' development for efficient or dependable generation to be yet completed.   Only a vulnerable and crippled electrical society would lose all regional and or local public city power.   We generate power on crutches instead of a rightful straight independent stance!   If survival is our call, technology must deliver enduring worth no matter the cost.   The price of remaining inept is oblivion.

Most, if not all, are now dazed in the Information Age; being overwhelmed by its enormity.   A new age of enlightenment is required for humanity to realize individual self electrical worth.   Beyond the digital divide, any cutting edge plutonium generators and or fusion research, the present is one form, moment to moment, and if we are to eventually seize electrical competence upon the simple, the source of our success is in the true fundamental definitions of all that we can perceive.   All sleep.



To Be Continued...

   Under Construction   

   Under Construction   

Future Ongoing History of Mathematics, Physics, & Electronics Planned.

A consortium must be established, of the highest caliber with urgency,
to expose and incorporate the absolute standard model of our universe.
Once established the next technological frontiers await ...
Application is of more importance than theory.


All can envision much more than can be accomplished alone.
Unity is our only hope if we wish to master electricity’s true value.
Genius is uniting individual self worth within obtainable goals
that reach out before our imaginations.
Truth on a platter.


Famous Revolutionary Quotes

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